The ninety-ninth psalm is a majestic call to worship, a call to worship and serve the God who is exalted above all people.
Psalm 99:2 – Yahweh is great in Zion; he is exalted above all the peoples.
In the context of ancient Israel, this psalm illustrates where God allowed his Presence to dwell: within the sanctuary of the temple. The first verse says, “He is enthroned between the cherubim.” The cherubim were two massive, winged angelic beings that dominated the Holy of Holies, the perfectly cube-shaped room at the center of the temple into which the High Priest entered only once a year on the Day of Atonement.
The psalmist urges the hearers to “worship at his footstool” or at the place of his feet. In the symbolism of the temple, if Yahweh was enthroned between the wings of the cherubim, then his feet would have rested at the Ark of the Covenant, the place of the Ten Commandments.
Psalm 99:4 – The mighty King loves justice. You have established fairness; you have administered justice and righteousness in Jacob.
Within this cascading symbolism, prostrating oneself at the footstool of God is a recognition of the justice of God through his commands. To bow at his footstool is to submit oneself to the administration of his justice through the observance of his commands.
As Yahweh is the King, it stands to reason that the foundation of his kingdom is based on righteousness, fairness, and justice. These, the psalm says, have been administered “in Jacob.” The whole history of Jacob or Israel is an example for the rest of the world to see how fairly God has dealt with his people. In viewing this example, we can understand how God desires to interact with his people.
Isaiah 55:3-4 – “Pay attention and come to me; listen, so that you will live. I will make a permanent covenant with you on the basis of the faithful kindnesses of David. Since I have made him a witness to the peoples, a leader and commander for the peoples…”
In other places, the heavens are considered the throne of God and the entire earth is considered the footstool of Yahweh. This is referenced by Isaiah who is quoted even by Yeshua himself.
- Isaiah 66:1 – This is what Yahweh says: Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool. Where could you possibly build a house for me? And where would my resting place be?
- Matthew 5:34-35 – But I tell you, don’t take an oath at all: either by heaven, because it is God’s throne; or by the earth, because it is his footstool; or by Jerusalem, because it is the city of the great King.
Ultimately, Yahweh says, as the Creator of all, there is no one place that could contain his Presence, but as the King of all he will honor the individual who humbly submits to his word.
Isaiah 66:2 – “My hand made all these things, and so they all came into being. This is Yahweh’s declaration. I will look favorably on this kind of person: one who is humble, submissive in spirit, and trembles at my word.”
All of this imagery combines to demonstrate the majestic holiness of the God of the universe. He cannot be contained within a temple, or even the earth itself, since it can only represent his footstool. His majesty is so great that it fills the universe, and yet he reveals to us, through his dealings with “Jacob” and with “David” that he respects those who honor his word. His word is the foundation of all justice and fairness that was symbolically kept within the footstool of his Presence in the temple, within the Ark of the Covenant.
If we are to worship at his footstool, and the entire earth is his footstool as both Isaiah and Yeshua reference, then it behooves all people to worship him on this earth by submitting to his timeless word represented by his commands. This is how we worship the God of the universe; not only by lifting holy hands in prayer or song, but by living out his commands in all we think, do and say.
Colossians 1:9-10 – “… we haven’t stopped praying for you. We are asking that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding, so that you may walk worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing to him: bearing fruit in every good work and growing in the knowledge of God…”
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